WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY? Biodiversity is the variety of living things on Earth. It includes ecosystem diversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity. Did you know?Sometimes humans play an important part in creating ecosystem diversity. Native Americans set prairies on fire when hunting animals and clearing land. Tall grass and other prairie plants with deep roots survived the fires. The prairie grasses provided food for large herds of bison, which in turn supplied the Indians with food and hides for clothing and shelter.