Echinacea tennesseensis, or Tennessee coneflower, is known to exist naturally only in three locations around Nashville. Smaller and less vigorous than purple coneflower, the Tennessee coneflower has short, more upturned ray flowers; spiny, coppery center disks with a green tinge and a vertical rootstock. It performs well in partial shade, especially near cedar trees and where bedrock is near the surface. This coneflower has historically been rare with its habitat restricted to open sites with low competition. Prior to European settlement, forest "openings" were more common, likely maintained by fire and large grazing mammals. Neither forms of disturbance are a significant factor in modern times; therefore, acceptable habitat is greatly diminished.